History of Kaissa


At the moment, it is difficult to describe the era of mainframe computers: large computers, each covering a large area, but it was the most popular in the early 1970s. During these years, computers had only appeared in areas that were far from military needs. In the Soviet Union, copies of a British company’s [2] computer were made for incomprehensible reasons (but not from the then fashion manufacturer IBM).

One of them was at ITEP, where the Arlazarov group was to be a pioneer in performing many of the tasks of computers. When programmers work with this code, it becomes clear that the correct programming language is being used. This is especially necessary because multitasking does not allow the usual manual fixes of the code area and the memory area behind program variables. However, the programming language (FORTRAN and assembler) seems to have power over creative thinking. As a result, expensive and efficient technology is almost always available (at present).

The machine is mainly used for two activities. Calculation of the possibility of an earthquake by experts in geophysical facilities who predicted the possibility of an earthquake in Romania (from the point of view of a seismologist). Second, the development of the chess program is based on the old ITEP chess program.

The real chess program was developed in 1972, and the then popular newspaper Pravda organized a game program with readers. An interesting name is needed and Komsomolskaya A. Khenkin’s chess critic coined the word Kais. The first lines are simple. Each group plays a white and black game. Changes to each page will be made within a week. Reader movements are selected according to the number of votes. Kaissa can meditate, but we do not use this feature.

The newspaper sent subsequent statements on Saturday and Tuesday until the letters were collected on Thursday evening. Kaissa has verified the answer. The game is played almost from January to November of the year and ends with a 1.5 to 0.5 player win. Anyone who remembers the summer of 1972 can envy the writers of Kaisa, who spend several days a week in an air-conditioned engine room, the most beautiful place in Moscow.

The game caught the attention of the world (he even knew foreigners who learned the Cyrillic alphabet and some Russians to participate in the game) and invited us to participate in the 1974 World Cup.

The ACM has organized annual North American championships between the chess programs in the United States and Canada since 1972. Kaisan’s team urged tournament organizers to consider hosting the World Cup as part of their regular congress.

There are programs from 16 different European countries, Canada and the United States. The previously announced championship took place in one of the best hotels in Stockholm. Tickets for the concert hall of the hotel where the participants were seated are sold out and are expensive. At that time, however, Sweden was one of the wealthiest countries in the world.

It is of course not possible to bring mainframes from all over the world to Stockholm. No computer replacement was found for all participants. Therefore, telephones (not the Internet, but ordinary telephones) are the basic means of communication. In the engine room where the program participants play, CIF is the special representative whose job it is to ensure that programmers do not interfere with the movement of the program.

In the tournament hall, the author of the program sat with the recipient in his hand. The rules of the tournament require the presence of the authors of the program (or one, if there are more, as in our case) in the room and not of representatives (I hardly ever have to visit Stockholm).

The difference in the usual schedule for chess tournaments: the wild noise in the hall. First the participants had to scream in the tube. It turned out to be a pleasant exception: the connection with Moscow worked very well, since it was organized in a special joint solution by three departments: the Scientific and Technological Committee, the Liaison Ministry and another committee. However, my negotiations on cell phones did not reveal any secrets as they were sent to the conference room where our fans gathered due to the high connections.

The audience made more noise in the tournament hall and reacted strongly to the movements of the participants. During these four days, many new Russian words were heard in the room. David Levy, tournament chief referee, Scottish chess player and chess editor, commented on the match to the public. David offers a chance at a chess program and often doubts movements.

After all, it was the most important thing for me, just behind the small table, the author exchanged words. Although the programs reflect the movement, their authors organize very special scientific conferences, after all, for many, the first meeting of a group of people who have been friends for years. The game is not delayed and is played until the end (you are not only busy at night, but also all night). The bar is open to participants in the hall, where they can not only drink but also speak about everything in the light. You know me as a stranger. Details of the value of my rent are interpreted as pure publicity. (Later, while I was in Moscow, one of the participants in the tournament found that paying for such an apartment was more expensive and was canceled.)

I distinguished myself from the other participants not only by my socialist background, but also by two other things. Soviet chess school despite all the strengths that I deliberately have writers from all the weakest chess player programs. My participation in the functional test was quickly identified as unnecessary. I am also a candidate, which finished second place in the championship (that’s exactly what I promised to competent people in Moscow), but I will be the first. The result, on the contrary, was that it was all over, especially Kaissa was busy. Kaissa received a gold medal (in the sense of pure gold) from the masters of the chess program, who then returned to the CIF field. During the years of reconstruction, its copies were transferred to the museums of several chess clubs, where they were transferred without the authorization of a group of writers.

As for the strength of the first World Cup chess program, there was nothing. Kaissa played strong in a weak first class that was not even mentioned in computer programs. From a scientific point of view, however, the first championship is a step in different directions. Good research subtraction methods (called “brute force”) that take parallelism in opponents help database beginners to consider non-trivial time-division algorithms: All of this seems obvious now, but later serious in the Deep Blue algorithm. The group is allowed to win the match with Kasparov.

The scientific community reacts to the world championships between chess programs. Chess is no longer considered an artificial intelligence problem because it gives way to special systems. Today, scientists are doing serious work in the field of artificial intelligence. The problem is that the quality of a chess program can be easily assessed objectively (as opposed to an expert system). Older chess programs vary depending on the method of decision making. And now that there is no point of reference, it is very difficult to understand, the method is feasible or simple, the author can speak convincingly.

Difficult tasks are not shared everywhere and between them, many of which can be assessed objectively in terms of quality of results. Even the most serious experts evolve before turning to artificial intelligence. Especially his work in the field of computer-user interaction (better user interfaces). But this is another story.

Official Information

Kaissa participated in the first three world championships between chess programs (1974, 1977, 1980) and took first, second and fourth places. Authors Kaissa Georgy Adelson-Velsky, Vladimir Arlazarov and Mikhail Donskoy have officially appeared. A. Baraev, . Alexander Bitman , Anatoly Uskov, M. Rozenfeld and A. Leman worked directly on this program.

Georgy Adelson-Velsky: is noted as one of the first Soviet programmers (with Alexander Brudno, Alexander Kronrod, Evgenii Landis and others). He was involved in key physics programs at ITEP, where he designed many algorithms that have become classics. In particular, the binary equilibrium trees, known worldwide as AVL trees, respect the name of the author: Adelson-Velsky and Landis. After a short training at MGU, he worked at the UIP and VNIISI (Union of Union Scientific Research Institute) with separate algorithms, network design and artificial intelligence. He now lives in Israel and works at NP Technion with complete work problems.

Vladimir Arlazarov – the creator of the original Soviet INES database management system (INES), on the basis of which many information systems were created at different levels. She has worked in pattern recognition programs all her life. He is currently responsible for cognitive techniques through the well known OCR CuneiForm system and a separate voice recognition system. [12]

Mihhail Donskoy – author of the INES file system, which uses legacy system support for many VT devices based on the YeS EVM (Unified Computer System). You recently resolved user interface issues. Now CEO of DISCon (Donskoy Interactive Software Company) with several Internet and other products.

14-20 this year. June (1999) In Paderborn (FRG), the World Championships are one of the chess programs. In recognition of the kindness of the Kaissa group of writers in developing the championship chess program, Mikhail Donskoy was invited as guest of honor. It must be said that for many years, the distinguished guests of the World Cup have long been Claude Shannon (author of information theory), Ken Thompson (author of the Unix operating system) and Mihail Botvinnik (champion from the chess world).